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DescriptionThis discussion is an opportunity to further demonstrate your ability to apply the
principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) to the design of instruction and
assessment. As you learned last week from reading Edyburn (2013) Chapter 5 and
viewing the CAST (2010) video UDL at a GlanceLinks to an external site., the three main
principles supporting UDL are to Provide Multiple Means of (a) Representation (the
“what of learning), (b) Action and Expression (the “how” of learning), and (c) Engagement
(the “why” of learning). For this discussion you will review technology checkpoints as
they relate to the three main principles of UDL. It may be helpful to review the Week 3
Instructor Guidance page where UDL is explored in the intellectual elaboration and to
take time now to review your feedback from the Week 3 assessments as well. Then, to
prepare for this discussion, read the Week 4 Instructor Guidance and then visit the The
UDL GuidelinesLinks to an external site. (2014) website. At the website, select the
principle you have been assigned based on your last name using the list below. You will
then choose one checkpoint from the principle you have been assigned to review.

If your last name begins with P-Z: Choose one checkpoint from any of the
three guidelines from Principle 3 Provide Multiple Means of Engagement
Within the checkpoint there are several examples and/or resources that support the
principle and checkpoint. Next, choose one example/resource that interests you to
explore, interact with, and evaluate. You may also choose to consider examples geared
toward the grade or ability level you are currently teaching, have experience in, or intend
to teach.
Initial Post: Create a multimedia-based presentation with software such
as ScreencastomaticLinks to an external site., Prezi or Voicethread to showcase the
specific UDL checkpoint example selected. Include the link to your presentation
featuring the example/resource selected as well as written responses to the discussion
points below. Your written response needs to be between one and two paragraphs in
length. Your written response should be the transcript for your presentation.
One of the ways to make your discussion engaging and effective is by including audio of
your voice alongside a presentation of the information you have investigated. You can
talk through these points during your tutorial. It will help to create a presentation in
PowerPoint first that is three slides long with each slide covering one of the three points
below. Create a transcript for each slide to create a seamless presentation. The
transcript can then serve as your written response that you will include with your
recording link. If for some reason you are unable to complete this discussion using the
recommended technology, please contact your instructor for an alternative way to
a. State your assigned principle and selected checkpointLinks to an external
site. (number and description). For example, Engagement: Checkpoint 7.2.
b. In your own words, describe your selected checkpoint and how it relates to
your principle. Make reference to the course readings or outside source to
support your description.
c. Choose one of the bullets below your selected checkpoint (see this
resource: UDL Strategies by CheckpointLinks to an external site.). Copy and
paste this bullet within your slide and then provide a specific example of how
this strategy could be used in your current/future work context. Consider how
you might use it when instructing.
Required Resources
Edyburn, D. L. (2013). Inclusive technologies: Tools for helping diverse learners achieve
academic success (2nd ed.). Bridgepoint Education.

Chapter 5: Managing Digital Technology in the Classroom
CAST. (2010, June 6). UDL at a glanceLinks to an external site. [Video file]. Retrieved from

This video, created by the Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST), is
approximately five minutes long and illustrates the three principles of
Universal Design for Learning (UDL). This video is a required resource for the
Week 4 Discussion.
Accessibility StatementLinks to an external site.
Privacy PolicyLinks to an external site.
CAST. (n.d.). The UDL guidelinesLinks to an external site.. https://udlguidelines.cast.org/

This webpage is sponsored by The National Center on Universal Design for
Learning. It contains numerous examples and resources related to UDL. This
website is a required resource for the Week 4 Discussion.
Accessibility StatementLinks to an external site.
Privacy PolicyLinks to an external site.
CAST UDL Lesson Builder. (n.d). Explore model UDL lesson plansLinks to an external site..

This section of the UDL Lesson Builder website shows customized UDL
lessons that are aligned to standards and tailored to include principles and
practical applications of Universal Design for Learning. This website is a
required resource for the Week 4 Discussion.
Accessibility StatementLinks to an external site.
Privacy PolicyLinks to an external site.
Meyer, A., Rose, D., & Gordon, D. (n.d.). Universal design for learning: Theory and
practiceLinks to an external site.. CAST.

This website is a required resource for the Week 4 Discussion. Here, you will
register for a free account so as to have access to sample lessons and build
your own.
Accessibility StatementLinks to an external site.
Privacy PolicyLinks to an external site.
West Virginia Department of Education. (n.d.). UDL strategies by checkpointLinks to an
external site..
https://wvde.state.wv.us/osp/UDL/7.%20UDL%20Guidelines%20Checklist.pdfLinks to
an external site.

This document provides specific strategies for each principle and checkpoint
that supports the learning in the Week 4 Discussion.
Chapter 5
Managing Digital Technology in the Classroom
AP Photo/Matt Rourke
Learning Outcomes
After reading this chapter, you should be able to
• Describe strategies for managing instruction when students use computers in computer labs.
• Describe strategies for managing instruction when students use computers in the classroom.
• Outline practical strategies for managing instruction when each student routinely has access to a computer,
tablet, or handheld device.
• Design a plan for the classroom that fosters the access and exchange of digital resources and assignments.
© 2019 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.

With a few exceptions, most adults today have not experienced classrooms in which technology
is ubiquitous. As a result, the education profession has been slow to recognize the need to
prepare teachers to manage technology-intensive learning environments.
Schools use many different approaches to provide technology. Some are legacy behaviors and
systems from years past, when technology was expensive and had to be housed in a central
location. The adoption of tablets and handheld devices offers increased access to technology
for learning while at the same time presenting new challenges for managing the learning
environment. As a result, we will explore a variety of management strategies that you can use
if you teach in a technology lab, a classroom with limited technology, or an environment in
which technology is ubiquitous. The purpose of this chapter is to help you develop plans for
managing technology tools so that they effectively enhance student learning.
Many teachers believe teaching in classrooms in which technology is ubiquitous is easier than
in more traditional settings. Although it is true that some tasks are easier, effective use of technology requires that teachers attend to a variety of classroom management issues that they
may not have encountered before. As a result, you will be introduced to strategies that you
may want to adopt concerning digital work flow. That is, how does a teacher’s work change
when the curriculum and student learning activities are all stored and managed online?
Field Trip: Meet Eight Technology-Using Educators
Visit this link to learn more about how and why teachers choose to use technology in their classroom. Do any of these stories resonate with your goals?
“Teachers’ Views on Technology in the Classroom”
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5.1 Technology Labs
When computer technology first appeared in schools in the 1980s, computers were placed in converted
classrooms that were designated as computer labs. There were several reasons for this arrangement.
First, courses on how to use computers were developed, requiring that students come to a particular
classroom to learn how to use these new tools. Second, computers were expensive. Therefore, it was
not unreasonable to expect that students would come to a special classroom, much the same way that
they changed classrooms for physical education, art, home economics, or industrial arts. Third, the electrical demands of operating multiple computers meant that the classroom housing the computer lab
often had to be rewired to provide sufficient electrical capabilities. Sometimes this also meant adding
air-conditioning to help reduce the heat buildup in the room that was common when many computers
were running. During the 1980s it simply did not seem viable to place computers in each classroom. If
you teach in a technology lab today, it is likely that it was the first computer lab space developed by your
© 2019 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.
5.1 Technology Labs
The Evolving Use of Technology Labs
Computer labs support whole-class instruction. Much of the curriculum in early computer
classes focused on computer literacy; that is, learning how to operate a computer; identifying
the components, such as the keyboard, screen, and disk drive; and learning to write simple
programs using languages such as BASIC and Logo (Lock & Carlson, 2000). During this time,
technology integration meant acquiring enough computers so that computer literacy classes
could be taught—first as an elective course and subsequently as a required course. However,
as schools expanded their computer labs, the computer literacy curriculum began to evolve
beyond word processing. This change in the curriculum was related to changes in the marketplace that merged word processors with other productivity software—most notably, databases and spreadsheets. Software programs that integrate several productivity programs are
known as productivity suites or integrated software packages. One example is Microsoft Office.
Today many schools maintain computer labs to support required computer course work. Typically, in such courses, students are required to master a suite of productivity tools such as
Office 365 or Google Classroom. In much the same way that a lab of typewriters was required
to teach typing in high school in years past, technology labs are viewed as necessary infrastructure for helping students master the tools of the 21st century. In many schools the term
computer lab has been updated with the term technology lab to reflect the addition of other
technological resources. As a result of such innovations, today’s technology labs are also home
to elective classes in digital art, digital photography, digital music, and web design. Sometimes large departments have their own specialized technology lab (e.g., a digital design lab, a
geographic information system lab, or makerspace) where they provide specialized software
like Photoshop or Google Earth that requires more computing power than may be available
on laptops or tablet computers or that requires interfaces with specialized peripherals (e.g.,
MIDI controllers).
Table 5.1 summarizes software applications commonly found in K–12 technology labs. Over
time collections of instructional software have diminished as more schools use web-based
apps and resources. Increasingly, desktop productivity suites, such as Google Classroom and
Office 365, are housed in the cloud such that users can access their information from anywhere and across their devices (i.e., from their phone, tablet, or computer).
Teachers who take their students to a technology lab do so for several reasons. One is to
teach them how to use a new software program or app. These types of large-group training
sessions are more effective than show-and-tell presentations in the classroom because each
student can follow along to learn the mechanics of using a new software program. A second
reason that teachers reserve technology labs is to provide students with time to conduct web
research or write a report. Whereas some educators frown on using class time for this type
of work, it is important to remember that the digital divide still exists and that all students do
not have routine access to high-speed Internet or a computer to write their papers. Finally,
teachers may schedule a technology lab for their class to gain access to software that has a
limited number of licenses for use or to take advantage of other technology resources not easily accessible outside of the lab (e.g., a scanner with optical character recognition software).
© 2019 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.
5.1 Technology Labs
Table 5.1: Software applications commonly found in K–12 technology labs
Instructional challenge
Technology options
Students need to master a
productivity suite to meet
the learning outcomes
in required computer
Teach students one
application such as
word processing. Their
knowledge of the interface,
menu, and so on will
generalize to other
applications such as
presentation software.
Google Classroom
Office 365
Students need to learn
how to search the web.
Provide instruction on
how to use a web browser.
Students need to learn
how to word process.
Teach students how to
word process and take
advantage of the many
features of a specific tool.
Students need to
learn how to create
Students need to learn
how to use specialized
digital design tools as part
of an elective class.
Teach students how to use
presentation software.
Teach students specialized
productivity tools.
Google Chrome
Internet Explorer
See word processing options with the productivity suite (above).
See presentation options with the productivity suite (above).
One of the key management challenges for technology directors who need to manage a technology lab involves establishing a sign-up system for prioritizing use of a lab. As a result,
some schools have created dedicated classrooms for teaching the required computer courses
as well as open labs that can be scheduled by teachers seeking to use the computer lab for a
project or a specific series of lessons. The mechanics of the scheduling system vary by school.
However, the use of web-based reservation systems has significantly reduced the complexity
of room scheduling in most schools. If you are a new teacher in a building, be sure to meet
with your technology coordinator or principal to learn how teachers can reserve the technology lab.
© 2019 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.
5.1 Technology Labs
The Decline of Technology Labs
In the early 21st century, some schools have closed their technology labs. The decisions are
often justified by any one of several reasons.
First, changing demographics have put pressure on some schools to add classrooms to reduce
class size. Under such circumstances, the space allocated to a technology lab is viewed as
a luxury that can no longer be afforded. Second,
in keeping with the emphasis on integrating technology into the curriculum, some administrators
have justified closing technology labs based on
the increased number of computers available in
classrooms. The decision is justified by arguing
that it is important to place technology in the
classroom where it can be used more routinely
because it will have greater impact than is possible with only periodic visits to a computer lab.
Finally, the ubiquitous nature of wireless InterAP Photo/The Messenger-Inquirer/Jenny Sevcik
net and mobile computing has changed how we
think about technology usage. Although comput- If every student had their own laptop
ers were special when they first entered schools or mobile device to use in class, what
in the 1980s, it now seems quaint to think that we measures would you need to take to
ensure your students remained on task?
have to go to a special room to use technology.
Whether your school has a technology lab or not may be the result of any of the reasons
mentioned earlier. Looking ahead, there will continue to be a need for specialized technology
labs in the short term if the curriculum involves software applications that require significant
computing power (e.g., iMovie, Photoshop) or the technology requirements are such that all
students must complete one or more technology courses. However, as we grow more accustomed to mobile computing, we will likely see the need for technology labs diminish as we
seek to use technology closer to routine teaching and learning contexts.
Pause to Reflect
As you think about your experience learning about technology, have the majority of your formal learning experiences occurred in computer labs? Or have you ever attended a professional
development workshop in which you were expected to bring your own device so that you could
interact with resources as the presenter demonstrated them?
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5.2 Classrooms With Limited
In the 1990s educational leaders began to recognize the value of technology in education. That is, they
saw that the computer literacy curriculum was based on the notion that the computer was the object of
instruction, whereas the more interesting applications of technology involved what you could do with
technology. This led to language suggesting that the technology should be transparent (Siegel & Davis,
The change in focus from computer literacy, in which the computer was deemed to be the important
topic of study, to technology integration, in which the computer was a transparent tool for exploring
important educational outcomes, was a profound philosophical shift that contributed to the deployment of computers in classrooms.
© 2019 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.
5.2 Classrooms With Limited Technology
The One-Computer Classroom
Much like the historical nostalgia for one-room schoolhouses, some teachers fondly recall
the days of the one-computer classroom. Initial efforts to place computers in the classroom
typically began with providing a single computer, often on the teacher’s desk. This action was
justified by the prevailing thought that the teacher was the most valuable resource in the
classroom, based on the argument that a scarce resource like a single computer would not
make significant contributions to student learning as a result of each student touching the
keys for a few minutes each week (Dockterman, 1991). However, because efforts to provide
more computers were often advanced through fund-raising by parent–teacher organizations,
in many schools it was expected that computers were being placed in the classroom for student use and not teacher productivity. You may observe similar arguments in schools today
that have been trying to move beyond initiatives that sought to provide iPads to teachers but
are still struggling to find the funding to provide tablet computers to each student.
One of the benefits of the one-computer classroom era was that it helped educators think
about the creative uses of technology in the classroom (Gimotty, 2004). In one of the most
popular books on early technology use in education, Great Teaching in the One-Computer
Classroom, Dockterman (1991) suggested five possible management approaches for the onecomputer classroom:
• with large group instruction,
• with small collaborative groups,
• as a lecture/presentation tool,
• within a learning center, and
• as a tool to support teacher productivity.
Although teachers were comfortable with large-group (i.e., whole class) instruction, the major
obstacle was the lack of a projection system so that the entire class could see what was on
the computer screen. As a result, many teachers chose not to use technology in the classroom
because their preferred form of instruction involved managing whole groups. Even today you
may see teachers who only use technology when providing whole-group instruction by using
an interactive whiteboard. Despite this obvious
infrastructure requirement, it was not until the
late 1990s and early 2000s that a majority of
classrooms were equipped with a computer and
projection system.
AP Photo/Franka Bruns
This student is working on an interactive
whiteboard. Do you think the use of this
kind of technology is beneficial to student
learning? Why or why not?
Using technology in small collaborative groups
involves project-based learning, in which students work in groups, both on and off the computer. Each student has a role (e.g., project
manager, secretary, researcher), which allows
the teacher to break up an assignment into multiple parts as students act in their different roles
within a project or across projects. These roles
also serve to distinguish who does what when
the team works at the computer.
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5.2 Classrooms With Limited Technology
An important insight about this approach is that it
recognized that learning did not necessarily occur
by touching the keys. Implementing this approach
in the classroom meant that the teacher had to
organize a group project, divide the students into
groups, and schedule each group for an adequate
amount of time at the computer to work on the project. Today we might think of a similar project that
involves asking a group of students to make a poster
using Glogster or produce a movie for YouTube.
Amornme/iStock/Getty Images Plus/GettyImages
More schools are moving to use of
the smart projector rather than the
traditional classroom projector. How
will these tools impact learning for all
Use of the computer as a lecture/presentation tool
became possible when projection systems and
interactive whiteboards were added to the classroom. In many situations this was justified as an
upgrade of the overhead projector typically found
in each classroom. In fact, this often resulted from the computer being installed in the front
center of the classroom and the projection system in the center of the room to display on the
front wall. In other cases projection systems were equipped to work with both the computer
and a VCR (and later a DVD player) to connect them to a television/monitor. In these situations, the setup was often mounted in a front corner of the classroom. Depending on the economic status of your school district, you may find that these types of infrastructures still exist.
Building a learning center around one to three computers is also a common tactic in many
schools. This approach lends itself to thinking of the computer as simply another learning
center within the classroom. This type of setup is easy for teachers to manage because it is a
supplement to instruction. Unfortunately, in many cases it has led to the view that the computer is a place where students can play games as a reward for completing their work. However, when used appropriately, computer learning centers in the classroom offer teachers and
students a great deal of flexibility for using technology to augment instruction.
Finally, the profession has long recognized the value of technology in the classroom to support teacher productivity. However, attempts to define a core technology tool kit that supports teacher productivity have been inconsistent. As a result, teachers are responsible for
locating suitable tools beyond the typical office suite, web browser, e-mail system, and course
management tools. Periodically, there is public outcry when technology purchases are perceived by a community as only benefiting adults (i.e., administrators, school board members,
or teachers) instead of being accessible to students (Moore, 2013).
Pause to Reflect
In your current school, can you find any evidence of the five management approaches used in
one-computer classrooms still in use? As you think about the five approaches to managing the
one-computer classroom, which are compatible with your personal instructional philosophy?
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5.2 Classrooms With Limited Technology
Moving Beyond a Single Computer in the Classroom
The one-computer classroom represents a developmental milestone in the adoption of technology in education. Although the justification for providing a single computer in the classroom was largely related to the expense, this approach continues in many schools in areas
with significant poverty, as well as many alternative and charter schools. Arguments for the
absence of technology often use Dockterman’s (1991) insight that the most valuable resource
in the classroom is the teacher. Nonetheless, there is clear evidence that society and educators are expecting 21st-century schools to become more technology intensive in order to better prepare students for a life outside of school that is increasingly technological.
One management strategy that has been developed to provide more technology in the classroom involves the use of computers on wheels (COWS). COWS are portable carts that store
laptop computers, Chromebooks, or iPads. The cart can be shared within a department or
group of teachers by simply pushing it from one classroom to another when curriculum activities require it. The cart has a charging system built in so that the devices are charged when
they are not being used. And each evening the cart can be moved to a secure location for storage. COWS are an excellent strategy for schools with limited classroom space for a dedicated
technology lab and provide considerable flexibility in making technology available to teachers and students when and where it is needed.
One of the key questions that emerged during efforts to place technology in schools where
it would be used most effectively centered on the issue of instructional goals. That is, what
was the learning outcome that teachers desired from student use of computers? This question often tripped up teachers, since the early rationale for using computers was to enable
students to know more about computers. However, the notion of technology integration and
transparency shifted the focus away from the technology itself to more important instructional goals and thereby supported efforts to integrate technology into education by asking
educators to find engaging and motivating applications that contributed to content knowledge (Grabe & Grabe, 2007).
Once teachers were able to answer this question, it became easier to request, and to receive,
additional technology resources. In some cases, this led to what has been called one-to-one
initiatives—that is, pilot programs designed to provide each student with a computer to
maximize the quality of the learning experience. We will now turn our attention to schools
and classrooms in which access to technology is ubiquitous and routine.
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5.3 Ubiquitous Technology
(One-to-One Classrooms)
Ubiquitous technology refers to situations in which technology is readily available everywhere.
Although computers have been a fixture in homes and schools for many years, it wasn’t until the early
2000s that large-scale projects began to provide each student with a computer and study its impact. As
a result, one-to-one access, whereby each student has ready access to his or her own device (e.g., laptop,
tablet, smartphone), is still considered a special initiative within a school district and a point of pride. To
date there is little evidence to suggest that one-to-one classrooms are widespread; it appears that less
than 50% of American classrooms feature one-to-one technologies. In this section, we explore several
initiatives that have contributed to what we know about technology-intensive environments.
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5.3 Ubiquitous Technology (One-to-One Classrooms)
Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow
The earliest and most ambitious research to study the impact of ubiquitous technology was
a project sponsored by Apple Computer beginning in 1985. The project, known as the Apple
Classrooms of Tomorrow (ACOT), provided teachers and students in five schools with two
computers each, one for use at home and one for use at school. This project received a great
deal of attention because it inspired educators to think of educational possibilities that could
be afforded when students had routine access to technology. To understand the context,
remember that this project began in the early days of microcomputers, in classrooms using
Apple IIc computers (the most portable computer of the day), and before the Internet as we
know today existed!
The longitudinal study explored a variety of issues related to daily use, impact on teaching
and learning, and a host of implementation factors. One of the most problematic issues was
that student desk space was too small for both desk work and computer work, which led to
some classroom management challenges (e.g., the computer would be set on the floor when
completing desk work). The research continued in the early 1990s and provided some of the
most important foundational evidence about the impact of ubiquitous technology on teaching
and learning (Baker, Gearhart, & Herman, 1994; Dwyer, Ringstaff, & Haymore, 1994; Dwyer,
Ringstaff, & Sandholtz, 1992). Much of what we know about technology integration, professional development for teachers, and planning for technology-based instruction can be traced
to the ACOT research.
The visibility of the ACOT project served as a powerful incentive for the educational technology profession to consider the importance of not merely integrating technology into the
curriculum but also using technology to foster the larger agenda of educational reform to
improve student learning. In the late 1990s educational leaders were connecting the dots
between new powerful laptop computers and possibilities afforded by the Internet. This led
to new efforts to replicate the ACOT research by issuing students laptop computers via oneto-one initiatives, whereby students could use a school district–issued laptop computer at
school and take it home as needed.
One-to-One Laptop Initiatives
Innovators have called attention to the profound implications mobile learning technologies
have for education (Bjerede, Atkins, & Dede, 2010; Breck, 2007). One of the most notable largescale efforts was directed by Nicholas Negroponte, a professor at the Massachusetts Institute
of Technology, whose vision involved creating a $100 laptop for education (http://one.laptop
.org). Although Negroponte failed to meet the $100 threshold, when his computer did become
available, users could buy two for $400, with one computer being donated to schools in developing countries. School districts like that in Birmingham, Alabama, purchased 15,000 devices
in an effort to address the achievement gap by creating technology-intensive learning environments (Warschauer, Choen, & Ames, 2012). In 2012 Google offered its Chromebook for $99, in
effect achieving Negroponte’s vision (Dawson, Cavanaugh, & Ritzhaupt, 2009; Muir, Knezek,
& Christiansen, 2004). These projects typically involved providing each student in an entire
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5.3 Ubiquitous Technology (One-to-One Classrooms)
grade with a laptop computer and expanding the
project each year by adding additional grade levels. These projects were notable for their partnerships with computer manufacturers and their
commitment to extensive teacher professional
development before the laptops were deployed.
AP Photo/The Herald-Palladium/Don Campbell
These students are part of the One-to-One
Computer Initiative. If your school could
take part in the initiative, how would you
ensure that your students were meeting
the desired learning outcomes?
Based on the lessons learned from ACOT, administrators recognized that enhanced learning
outcomes would not be achieved by simply dispensing technology. Rather, technology provided
a context for rethinking teaching and learning.
Further, teachers needed ongoing support and
assistance to deal with concerns (Donovan, Hartley, & Strudler, 2007) and implementation issues
that arose (Clausen, Britten, & Ring, 2008; Grignano, Poftak, & Rockman, 2004; Levin, 2004).
To date, the research evidence concerning the educational outcomes of one-to-one initiatives
is mixed. Some studies have shown very positive learning gains (Lowther, Ross, & Morrison,
2003; Murphy, King, & Brown, 2007), while others have pointed to very modest gains that
raise questions about the investment (Dunleavy & Heinecke, 2007). And some studies have
shown negative outcomes or no significant difference between the laptop and control classrooms (Grimes & Warschauer, 2008). Some studies have discovered other benefits such as
gender equalization in technology skills (Kay, 2006) and significant gains in student engagement that suggest promise for improving student achievement (Russell, Bebell, & Higgins,
2004; Swan, van’t Hooft, Kratcoski, & Unger, 2005). To date, most studies indicate the potential of one-to-one initiatives that need additional attention to the quality of implementation
and the need for more research. However, there is little evidence concerning the impact for
urban low–socioeconomic status (SES) students (Grimes & Warschauer, 2008; Mouza, 2008);
this therefore illustrates that the digital divide is still operating. Despite the mixed research
support for one-to-one initiatives, schools continue to make significant investments in mobile
Bring Your Own Device
One of the latest developments in managing technology in schools relates to the persistent
failure of educational systems to fund technology at a level sufficient to provide each student
with a personal computing device. As a result, schools have used initiatives known as bring
your own device (BYOD) to encourage students to bring their own mobile device to school
(Alberta Education, 2012). The rationale for these initiatives is found in the statement that
“21st-century learners need to be learning with 21st-century tools.” Readers interested in a
practical guide to BYOD are encouraged to download the following document.
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5.3 Ubiquitous Technology (One-to-One Classrooms)
Field Trip: BYOD
Visit this site to explore a guide book for educators on implementing a BYOD initiative in your
school. As you explore, are there issues that need to be considered that you had not previously
thought about?
Bring Your Own Device: A Guide for Schools
Not surprisingly, BYOD is appealing to school districts, since it moves the cost for purchasing
technology from school budgets to family budgets. However, other concerns are also driving
these decisions. First, schools are trying to take advantage of devices students already own,
such as smartphones and tablets. This trend is an extension of the ubiquitous computing initiatives that began with the ACOT research. Second, educators believe that students are more
likely to be responsible for technology if it is their own personal device. As a result, in the
short term you are likely to hear much more about BYOD initiatives in your school district
and state.
Despite the excitement about the potential of BYOD, there are several drawbacks. First,
schools will have to develop policy and procedures to assist families who cannot afford to
purchase and maintain the technology. To date, this has not been addressed on a large scale
in low-SES districts. Second, districts need to develop better access and security systems to
support the wide variety of devices and operating systems that students may bring to school.
Typically, this is not a problem for districts that have installed new networks, but such efforts
can require a considerable investment in infrastructure. Additionally, school districts may
need to change existing school board policies, which in most school districts ban student use
of cell phones during school. And, finally, teachers may need additional professional development about how to manage personal technology devices and develop meaningful instructional activities for using mobile technologies (Kolb, 2011; Schrock, 2013; Swan, Kratcoski, &
van’t Hooft, 2007).
Pause to Reflect
Would you like to teach in a classroom in which each student has his or her own device? Would it
make a difference if the device was a computer or a smartphone? What implications might ubiquitous technology have for teachers when planning and delivering instruction? How would you
feel about being asked to help a student with a device you have never used before?
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5.4 Preparing Students to Use
Technology Routinely
Regardless of the type of computer configuration found in a school, teachers will need to prepare students before they can begin using technology routinely in the classroom. Only after students master the
basic operations of the technology and software can attention shift to focus on the issues of learning
and performance. In this section, we will examine several issues in order to help you think about how to
effectively manage digital technology in the classroom.
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5.4 Preparing Students to Use Technology Routinely
Student Training
It is extremely difficult and frustrating to try to learn a new tool while also trying to meet a
deadline. Therefore, it is essential that teachers teach students how to operate software and
apps before beginning an assignment.
Just as teachers spend considerable time in the early part of the school year teaching students
the operating principles of the school and various classroom routines, they must also teach
students how to operate the technology found in the school. For example, when visiting the
computer lab, should students turn on the computers at the beginning of the class period? Or
are the computers turned on during the first hour and turned off during the final class period
of the day? Likewise, does each student have to sign in using a user name and password, or
are the machines open access for anyone? How does a new student obtain a user name and
password? What happens when students forget their password? What happens when a BYOD
device won’t connect to the network?
Teachers must be trained on the answers to these and similar questions to effectively use
technology. Student teachers often encounter barriers in this area when they enter a school
midyear, since many of the operating procedures are reviewed with new faculty at the beginning of the year. Log-in procedures can be particularly challenging to manage as schools
implement more online learning initiatives and need to provide students with remote access
to school servers and software.
Most schools require that students and families sign a document agreeing to the school’s
acceptable use policy (see Figure 5.1 for an example). As the name suggests, these policies
outline acceptable and unacceptable use of school technology and the consequences for violating the policy. Teachers are required discuss these documents with students and parents
and expand on topics such as security, privacy, and more.
Strategies for Introducing a New Technology Tool
When teachers are introducing a new technology tool, they may need to use a variety of
resources to learn how to use it effectively. For example, they may find materials created by
the publisher to be useful. This may involve a text- or video-based product demonstration.
Online tutorials like Lynda (https://www.lynda.com) are another common resource, which
require the user to read some information and click as directed to simulate the software use
experience. Finally, teachers may create their own learning guides that provide students with
guidance about how to complete certain activities within their software program.
Quick start guides are an example of a learning support tool commonly provided for commercial software. They summarize key commands and tasks that users might complete. See
Figure 5.2 for a teacher-created quick start guide about how to use a specific website tool to
create web pages. Notice that these types of guides can be made within a word processor and
can include graphics made from screen captures. When appropriate, it is an excellent idea to
have students make these types of tools as a way to help other students learn a new tool. Students with disabilities may require specific step-by-step instruction guides like these to help
them remember how to complete a task.
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5.4 Preparing Students to Use Technology Routinely
Figure 5.1: Sample acceptable use policy
The sample acceptable use policy shown here can be adapted for classroom use, based on teacher and
even student preferences.
internet acceptable use policy
internet acceptable use policy
Page 2
School District
Please read this document carefully before signing.
Internet access is now available to students and teachers
in the School District.
We are very pleased to bring this access to
School District and believe the Internet offers vast, diverse,
and unique resources to both students and teachers. Our
goal in providing this service to teachers and students is to
promote educational excellence in schools by facilitating
resource sharing, innovation, and communication.
The Internet is an electronic highway connecting
thousands of computers all over the world and millions of
individual subscribers.
Students and teachers have access to:
1 Electronic mail (e-mail) communication with people all
over the world.
2 Information and news from NASA as well as the
opportunity to correspond with the scientists at NASA
and other research institutions.
3 Public domain software and graphics of all types for
school use.
4 Discussion groups on a plethora of topics ranging from
Chinese culture to the environment to music to politics.
5 Access to many university library catalogs, the Library
of Congress, and ERIC, a large collection of relevant
information for educators and students.
With access to computers and people all over the world
also comes the availability of material that may not be
considered to be of educational value in the context of the
school setting. School District has taken
precautions to restrict access to controversial materials.
However, on a global network it is impossible to control all
materials, and an industrious user may discover controversial information. We ( School District) firmly
believe that the valuable information and interaction
available on this worldwide network far outweigh the
possibility that users may procure material that is not
consistent with the educational goals of the district.
Internet access is coordinated through a complex
association of government agencies and regional and
state networks. In addition, the smooth operation of the
network relies upon the proper conduct of the end users,
who must adhere to strict guidelines. These guidelines are
provided herein so that you are aware of the responsibilities you are about to acquire. In general, this requires
efficient, ethical, and legal utilization of the network
resources. If a School District user violates any
of these provisions, his or her account will be terminated
and future access could possibly be denied.The signature
or signatures at the end of this document are legally
binding and indicate that the party or parties who signed
have read the terms and conditions carefully and understand their significance.
Acceptable Use. The purpose of the backbone networks
making up the Internet is to support research and
education in and among academic institutions by providing
access to unique resources and the opportunity
for collaborative work. The use of your account must be in
support of education and research and consistent with the
educational objectives of the School District. Use
of another organization’s network or computing resources
must comply with the rules appropriate for that network.
Transmission of any material in violation of any national or
state regulation is prohibited. This includes, but is not
limited to: copyrighted material, threatening or obscene
material, or material protected by trade secret.
Privileges. The use of the Internet is a privilege, not a
right, and inappropriate use will result in a cancellation of
this privilege. (Each student or teacher who receives an
account will be part of a discussion with a School
District staff member pertaining to the proper use of the
network.) The system administrators will deem what is
inappropriate use and their decision is final. Also, the
system administrators may close an account at any time
as required. The administration, faculty, and staff of
School District may request the system administrator to deny, revoke, or suspend specific user accounts.
(continued on next page)
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5.4 Preparing Students to Use Technology Routinely
Figure 5.1: Sample acceptable use policy (continued)
The sample acceptable use policy shown here can be adapted for classroom use, based on teacher and
even student preferences.
internet acceptable use policy
internet acceptable use policy
Page 3
Page 4
Network Etiquette. You are expected to abide by the
generally accepted rules of network etiquette. These
include, but are not limited to, the following:
• Be polite. Do not get abusive in your messages to
• Use appropriate language. Do not swear or use
vulgarities or any other inappropriate language.
• Illegal activities are strictly forbidden.
• Do not reveal your personal address or phone
number, or those of students or colleagues.
• Note that electronic mail (e-mail) is not guaranteed to be
private. People who operate the system do have access
to all mail. Messages relating to or in support of illegal
activities may be reported to the authorities.
Vandalism. Vandalism will result in cancellation of
privileges. Vandalism is defined as any malicious attempt
to harm or destroy data of another user, the Internet, or
any of the above-listed agencies or other networks that are
connected to any of the Internet backbones. This includes,
but is not limited to, the uploading or creation of computer
I understand and will abide by the above Internet Acceptable Use Agreement. I further understand that any violation
of the regulations above is unethical and may constitute a
criminal offense. Should I commit any violation, my access
privileges may be revoked and school disciplinary action,
or appropriate legal action, may be taken.
• Do not use the network in such a way that you would
disrupt the use of the network by other users.
User’s Full Name: ______________________________
User’s Signature: ______________________________
Date: ________________________________________
• All communications and information accessible via the
network should be assumed to be private property.
Warranties. School District makes no warranties
of any kind, whether expressed or implied, for the service
it is providing. School District will not be
responsible for any damages you suffer. This includes loss
of data resulting from delays, nondeliveries, misdeliveries,
or service interruptions caused by its own negligence or
your errors or omissions. Use of any information obtained
via the Internet is at your own risk. School
District specifically denies any responsibility for the
accuracy or quality of information obtained through its
Security. Security on any computer system is a high
priority, especially when the system involves many users. If
you feel you can identify a security problem on the
Internet, you must notify a system administrator or the
School District Internet Coordinator. Do not
demonstrate the problem to other users. Do not use
another individual’s account without written permission
from that individual. Attempts to log on to the Internet as a
system administrator will result in cancellation of user
privileges. Any user identified as a security risk or as
having a history of problems with other computer systems
may be denied access to the Internet.
As the parent or guardian of this student, I have read the
Internet Acceptable Use Agreement. I understand that this
access is designed for educational purposes.
School District has taken precautions to eliminate
controversial material. However, I also recognize it is
impossible for School District to restrict access to
all controversial materials, and I will not hold the district
responsible for materials acquired on the network. Further,
I accept full responsibility for supervision if and when my
child’s use is not in a school setting. I hereby give
permission to issue an account for my child and certify that
the information contained on this form is correct.
Parent’s or Guardian’s Name: ______________________
Parent’s or Guardian’s Signature: ___________________
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5.4 Preparing Students to Use Technology Routinely
Figure 5.2: Example of a quick start guide
An example of a teacher-made quick start guide for a web app that students will use.
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5.4 Preparing Students to Use Technology Routinely
The fundamental goal of ensuring that students and teachers can independently use technology tools is to maximize time on task engaged in learning. This goal applies to apps as well as
specific websites. Thus, when it is time to use a technology tool, no time is wasted trying to
figure out where it is or how to get it started.
Help Seeking Within the Technology Classroom
Another management issue that teachers will need to consider when using technology in the
classroom involves thinking about what provisions will be available for help seeking. That
is, when students forget how to save a file, how to apply a specific formatting feature, and so
on, what should they do first? When every student encounters multiple such problems, the
number of questions can quickly overwhelm a teacher. As a result, it is important to teach and
model help-seeking behaviors to prevent students from becoming dependent on the teacher
as the sole information source.
For example, you might suggest that students access the online help system found within a
program. Or they might search for a YouTube video to guide them through a step-by-step process. If that fails, they may want to turn to a peer for advice. Some schools have training programs for peer technology experts. These are students who receive advanced training in all
the features of a product like Microsoft Office and are shown how to effectively offer technical
assistance to others (rather than just taking control of the keyboard and doing the task themselves). Having a peer expert in the classroom can be very helpful. Students with disabilities
have especially benefited from serving as “experts,” which can foster a sense of self-esteem
from recognizing that they know more about a topic than most others and are able to offer
assistance to others when needed. Finally, some technology labs have implemented a system
of placing plastic cups on top of the computer monitors. The cup is routinely face down, but
students turn it face up to signal to the teacher that they have a question. Since the sight lines
are often impaired in technology labs, this signaling device is a useful classroom management
Managing Assistive Technology in the Classroom
The management of assistive technology in the classroom has received considerably less
attention than general technology management issues. As a result, little is known about the
attitudes, concerns, and interventions of general education teachers concerning the students
in their classroom who use assistive technology. Among the existing research, Banda, Grimmett, and Hart (2009) provide strategies for students with autism spectrum disorder and
explain how activity schedules can facilitate transitions. Similarly, Mechling (2007) has studied the use of assistive technology for self-prompting students with intellectual disabilities to
complete daily tasks. Further, Fitzgerald and colleagues have created a system known as KidTools (http://kidtools.cepel.org), which provides behavioral supports for students and teachers (Miller, Fitzgerald, Koury, Mitchem, & Hollingsead, 2007). Unfortunately, because most
teachers have little knowledge or direct experience using assistive technology, students are
left to troubleshoot on their own or to seek the assistance of an assistive technology specialist.
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5.4 Preparing Students to Use Technology Routinely
Despite a teacher’s best preparation, there will be times when a technology malfunction creates a need for a Plan B. This may come about because the bulb on the computer projection
system has burned out, a computer is broken so that each student does not have his or her
own computer, a network is down so that a teacher cannot access a required document or
web page, or a power outage has unexpectedly shut down the computers and caused students
to lose their work. In each of these cases, there will be some disruption in the instructional
lesson plan. As a result, it is necessary to plan some alternative strategies.
Pause to Reflect
Has a technology failure ever disrupted your teaching? What went wrong? What did you do as a
Plan B? Ultimately, how did you resolve the problem?
What happens when a teacher was planning on using a PowerPoint for the day’s lecture but
the server is down? Is there a chance that the presentation was saved on a USB drive? Do you
remember the lecture well enough to provide the information without the PowerPoint? Do
you create a new schedule and hope that the server comes up later in the day? Or do you tell
students you will e-mail them the PowerPoint later in the day? Although we cannot anticipate
the exact nature of these kinds of disruptions, we should always have a Plan B in case we
encounter a problem. Here are some ideas to consider when troubleshooting.
When Technology Disrupts Your Teaching
1. First, don’t panic.
2. Determine if the problem is the computer,
keyboard, mouse, software, power supply,
or connection to the Internet. This helps
determine where to focus problem solving.
3. Is there a problem getting the computer to
start up? If so, check the power connections
and cables. Is everything plugged in? Is
the power strip turned on? Can you try a
different outlet? Are other computers in
Motortion/iStock/Getty Images Plus/GettyImages
the room working properly?
4. Does the computer power on correctly but the keyboard or mouse do not appear to
be working? Check the cable connections and try again. Or swap out a keyboard and
mouse from another computer to determine whether there is a problem.
5. Are you able to connect to a local area network or the Internet? If not, use the
network diagnostic control panel to see if you are receiving an Internet signal. Could
the local server be down? Or could the disruption be from your Internet service
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5.4 Preparing Students to Use Technology Routinely
6. Were you working one moment and then everything just froze up? Can you save
your current work before proceeding? If yes, this will provide a measure of safety.
Can you quit the current application you are in and restart the program? Then, check
to see if the autosave feature of the software saved a temporary version of your file
before it shut down. At this point, you may need to restart the computer to clear the
memory and reset everything to its proper working state.
7. Is there a problem with the audio? If so, check the volume control settings.
8. Is there a problem with the printer? If so, check to see that the cables are connected
properly and that there is paper in the tray. Also access the print monitor to determine if there are any print jobs on hold that are creating an issue and blocking all new
print jobs. Finally, if there is still a problem, turn off the printer power and restart it
before trying to print again.
For additional troubleshooting tips, visit http://webpage.pace.edu/ms16182p/troubleshooting.
Pause to Reflect
Given your experience, what suggestions would you offer to other teachers about managing technology in the classroom? What procedures and structures do you find most useful for ensuring
that students are on task? What recommendations would you make regarding what to do when
technology goes awry?
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5.5 Digital Work Flow
Most adults grew up in an era when professional productivity involved moving paper around. However,
it is now increasingly important to learn how to work digitally. Beyond the initial thought that technology would make us more environmentally friendly by using less paper, digital work flow also provides a retrieval mechanism that was not previously available. Consider the example of airline boarding
passes. At one time we needed to go to the airport in person and check in to receive a piece of paper that
was used to provide admission to the appropriate terminal and then entrance onto the appropriate airplane. Now we can forgo printing altogether by checking in online and sending a digital boarding pass to
our smartphone that can be scanned at the airport. The digital boarding pass has been readily adopted
by frequent flyers because it eliminates the problem of finding a printer while traveling between hotels
and client work sites. However, in education we have not seriously examined the teaching and learning
work flow in the classroom.
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5.5 Digital Work Flow
Knowledge Management
Productivity experts (Allen, 2002; Sparks, 2012) have a variety of suggestions for helping
21st-century citizens deal with the ever-increasing amounts of information. In particular, the
problem of managing an ever-expanding e-mail inbox has been a significant vexation for productivity. While the notion of sharing information via e-mail was initially viewed as desirable,
most young people avoid e-mail in favor of sharing information via texting and social media.
Nevertheless, the fundamental issue remains: How do we manage an ever-increasing amount
of information?
Within education, the Council for Exceptional Children Presidential Commission on the Conditions of Special Education Teaching and Learning (2000) drew attention to the urgent need
to address the quality of special education work life by reducing the paperwork demands
of the profession. Despite this attention, the IEP process continues to be an overwhelming
paper-based task for special education teachers to manage each year.
Knowledge management for teachers is largely an underdeveloped field (Caroll et al., 2003;
Saba & McDowell, 2007). As a result, we mostly rely on general strategies that have been
found to be useful in other professions. One of the foundational issues related to knowledge
management centers on the creation and management of digital information. Once text has
been created in a word processor, it can be shared with others via e-mail and posted on a
server for downloading or archiving. Moreover, as people rely more on cloud-based tools such
as Google Drive and Office 365, information is accessible from each of their devices from any
location. This is a profound transformation in knowledge management that has yet to be fully
embraced by educators.
The goal of creating and managing information in a digital format is to ensure that it can
be accessed and manipulated as needed. Unfortunately, some people use their e-mail box
as a permanent storage folder for every message and attachment they have ever received.
Although this system may work for some, it is largely ineffective. Productivity experts indicate
that we should act immediately on tasks that take less than 2 minutes and allocate regularly
timed periods to take action on tasks that take 2–10 minutes to complete in order to minimize
the number of messages in our e-mail inboxes with action pending.
One way that teachers can use this principle is to create an inbox in the online content management system or use a service such as Dropbox (https://www.dropbox.com) through
which students can submit their assignments. Then teachers can provide feedback on the
assignments by using Track Changes within Microsoft Word. After they have recorded the
student’s grades in an electronic grade book, they can return the assignment to the student
via e-mail. Notice how this sample assignment has converted a paper process to a transaction that has been completed entirely in an electronic format. And because of the nature of
server backups, information is seldom lost, and documents can be retrieved from the system
as needed in the future.
Naturally, this process takes some getting used to, and teachers will need to prepare students
to operate within a digital work flow process (e.g., file naming conventions, where to upload
assignments). One frequent problem that some teachers encounter is that students may save
files in a noncompatible format that prevents teachers from opening the file. Therefore, it is
important to teach students which file formats will be accepted and direct them to online file
conversion services like Zamzar (https://www.zamzar.com) if needed.
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5.5 Digital Work Flow
Practical Strategies for Digital Work
The goal of modifying traditional classroom work into a digital work flow requires an appreciation of the value of working electronically, and clearly the transition process is painful for
some. Perhaps you recall hearing of professionals who had an assistant print out e-mails so
that they could read them and then direct the assistant on how to respond! Our students are
increasingly familiar with working in a digital environment and are comfortable completing
forms online, submitting documents, and completing e-commerce transactions without any
need for paper printouts.
A good place for teachers to begin implementing a digital work flow system in the classroom
is by creating and using templates. Think about a field trip permission form that you might
create and send home. Because the form is basically the same each time, creating a file that
serves as a template for this correspondence saves a great deal of time, since you can go in
and simply change the location and dates. Most productivity tools like word processors, databases, and spreadsheets come with templates you can use immediately for managing digital
Teachers have also found the use of digital logs helpful in keeping track of events, materials,
and more. Once you become disciplined to record the entry, a log will show you a day-byday listing of the events (e.g., absences, behavioral outbursts, etc.). Although logs are ideal
for tracking basic information, if the goal is to do extensive searching, it might be better to
store the information in a database. A practical tool for teachers who need to track information involves using a database like FileMaker Pro (http://filemaker.com) that allows you to
create custom databases that function as an app. A practical tool for storing miscellaneous
information is Evernote (http://evernote.com). In both cases the goal is to store information
in an accessible digital format, rather than trying to keep track of notes and random scraps
of paper.
Once teachers become comfortable with digital work, they often find themselves accumulating an excellent collection of quizzes, exams, and study materials. Such documents are
extremely helpful when it comes time to make a study guide or design new quizzes. Simply
open old documents and copy and paste selected items into a new file. Distributing them via
the class website allows students to know where they can find these study resources when
they need them. All of this is part of the typical process of helping students understand how
to work effectively in the classroom.
Finally, let’s consider an example using Google Sheets. A teacher is interested in creating a
survey that students will complete to provide information for an upcoming social science lesson. By using the Google Forms tool (see Figure 5.3), the teacher creates a simple survey. The
app generates a URL that the teacher can send via e-mail to all of the students in the class.
Students click on the link and complete the survey. The teacher can go into Google and view
the results of the survey as the raw data are captured in a spreadsheet and responses are
graphed for visual analysis .
Notice that the entire process has been completed electronically. If you have past experience
in conducting survey research, you will readily appreciate the time saved by not having to
enter the data from paper into the computer for analysis. This example illustrates the value
of reconceptualizing educational practices that have traditionally been paper-based into a
digital work flow process.
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Summary and Resources
Figure 5.3: Survey results
The survey results can be graphed for immediate visual analysis of student responses.
The data is also captured in a spreadsheet, which enables teachers to conduct additional analysis.
Strongly Agree
Strongly Disagree
Pause to Reflect
Think about recent transactions you have been involved in (such as online shopping) that have
been completely electronic. Is it reasonable to think about how teaching and learning may be
facilitated through a digital work flow model? If so, why? If not, why not?
Chapter Summary
Summary and Resources
As more technology enters the classroom, the learning environment is changing. Although
some schools have limited classroom technology that requires teachers to take their classes
to labs, others have placed presentation technology (e.g., computer projection systems, interactive whiteboards) in the classroom to support teacher-directed instruction. However, the
availability of low-cost tablet computers and handheld devices is fueling a trend to place technology in the hands of students. As districts move toward implementing ubiquitous technologies, the classroom is subject to a variety of new considerations about how to store, manage,
and use technology when each child has access to digital tools. This means that teachers need
support to design instruction that will take advantage of the power and potential of technology, as well as assistance in troubleshooting when technology disrupts their teaching.

Technology labs are artifacts of the early days of educational technology when computers were expensive and needed to be kept in a central location where students
would go to use computers.
In classrooms where there is only one computer, teachers often use the computer
for group instruction or professional productivity. However, creative management
strategies can be used to set up three learning stations from one computer.
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Summary and Resources

In one-to-one classrooms, technology is ubiquitous. To maximize the impact of this
technology infrastructure, teachers must integrate technology into teaching and
learning by developing meaningful learning activities that engage students and contribute to enhanced learning outcomes.
In classrooms in which technology is integrated and used routinely, the technology
becomes transparent. That is, the technology is seldom noticed because the attention is focused on what students are able to do with it. Technology failures are an
inconvenience, but the teacher and students can be well versed in how to address
such problems and move forward.
One important skill teachers may wish to acquire involves implementing digital
work flow procedures in the classroom. That is, it is possible to create procedures
whereby teachers distribute assignments electronically, students prepare and
submit their work electronically, and teachers evaluate student work and provide
feedback to students in an electronic format. Although some teachers are motivated
to move in this direction because of its environmentally sensitive means of conserving paper, others recognize the efficiencies found in digital work flow.
Reflection and Critical Thinking
1. You have been given the role of technology coordinator for your school. How will you
go about supporting teachers’ use of technology? Review the following three-article
series, which provides some suggestions for technology leaders:
• Hall, D. (2003). Power strategy tool kit, part 1: Managing the vision. Learning and
Leading With Technology, 31(1), 46–50.
• Hall, D. (2003). Power strategy tool kit, part 2: Managing the performance.
Learning and Leading With Technology, 31(2), 36–39.
• Hall, D. (2003). Power strategy tool kit, part 3: Managing the operations. Learning and Leading With Technology, 31(3), 50–53.
2. Why does the configuration of technology in the classroom have an impact on the
management plan that teachers must use?
3. Conduct a search to identify videos that may be used to introduce students to how to
use a new piece of software or app.
4. Select a software program or app and create a quick start guide.
5. Download and browse the following e-book:
The MacSparky Paperless Field Guide, by David Sparks (http://www.macsparky.com
/paperless). What ideas could you implement in your classroom to begin implementing the principle of digital work flow? What are the pros and cons of such a system?
Recommendations for Your Professional Bookshelf
Frasier, M., & Hearrington, D. (2017). Technology coordinator’s handbook (3rd ed.). Eugene,
OR: International Society of Technology in Education.
An overview of the responsibilities of a school-based technology leader who manages not
only technology but people and systems.
Schrum, L. M., & Levin, B. B. (2009). Leading 21st-century schools: Harnessing technology for
engagement and achievement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Describes the importance and practical strategies for moving schools to become
21st-century learning organizations in which technology is used routinely and
effectively to enhance student learning.
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Summary and Resources
Web Watch
Classroom Management Technology Tools is a comprehensive collection of tools and
resources for managing technology in the classroom.
The State Educational Technology Directors Association is a professional association of state
directors of educational technology that provides a means of staying up-to-date on a
variety of policy and implementation issues.


Key Terms
acceptable use policy A school district’s
policy regarding what is acceptable and
what is unacceptable when students and
staff use technology and the Internet.
bring your own device (BYOD) An initiative to encourage students to bring their
own mobile device to school.
computers on wheels (COWS) Portable
technology labs equipped with laptops,
tablets, or handheld devices and charging
digital work flow System in which information is created, shared, and stored in a
digital format for maximum productivity;
sometimes referred to as “going paperless.”
one-to-one initiatives A general term used
to describe situations in which all students
have their own technology devices.
technology lab A specially designated
classroom in schools. Often used for
required classes in technology as well as
some elective classes. Sometimes used as a
synonym for computer lab; in other cases, it
is used as an updated term replacing computer lab.
ubiquitous technology Technology that is
available everywhere.
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