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Find an antecedent intervention (within the last 5 years) from this peer-reviewed behavioral journal list and describe/synthesize how that treatment could be applied/utilized to improve a target behavior. Ideally, you will select this based on need for a client you see within a current setting, however, if that is not relevant to you, please select an antecedent intervention you would like to learn more about.

You should have at minimum of 5 complete, descriptive sentences to cover each point. Please make sure to present the content based on the available literature, but also elaborate and provide further synthesis. You must also remember to write in a formal, scholarly tone and refrain from using personal pronouns. The total assignment should be 2-3 pages, excluding the title and reference pages.

You are responsible to submit this using correct APA formatting learned in Unit 1, one point will be deducted from the total amount for each APA error.

Resources must be peer-reviewed behavioral journal articles. You must provide the complete reference to any and all resources used. You must submit references using correct APA format.  You must have at least two additional resource than the readings posted for this unit.


  • Describe the antecedent intervention – 2 points
  • Describe the target behavior – 2 points
  • Discuss how improvement would benefit the client/individual – 2 points
  • Review the literature/current research – 2 points
  • Explain how this procedure be implemented- 2 points
  • APA format and scholarly writing errors will be deducted from the overall score


I work in a preschool setting with non-verbal children from the ages of 3-5 year old-that needs to be implemented someway in the paper

-The antecedent intervention I picked: Visual Schedule/Activity Schedule

-Target Behavior: Aggression

-Attached, please find two peer-reviewed articles i’d like to use in my paper.

-You can NOT use personal pronouns 

-Has to be written APA style 7 style 


Behavior Modification
2023, Vol. 47(1) 219 –246

© The Author(s) 2022
Article reuse guidelines:

DOI: 10.1177/01454455221085249



Applications of the
Premack Principle: A
Review of the Literature

Jessica L. Herrod1 , Sara K. Snyder1,
Joseph B. Hart1, Sarah J. Frantz1,
and Kevin M. Ayres1

The Premack principle states that any Response A can reinforce any other
Response B if the independent rate of A is greater than the independent
rate of B. This theory demonstrates reinforcer relativity, where the relative
probabilities of responses can be more impactful than preference. Applying
the Premack principle involves arranging the environment to restrict
access to certain responses based on relative probabilities of a set of given
responses. Though the Premack principle is described in modern behavior
analytic texts, Konarski et al. identified a lack of empirical evidence to support
its application. The purpose of the current paper is to systematically review
the extant literature using the Premack principle and evaluate how and if
researchers have applied reinforcer relativity as described by Premack and
the subsequent effectiveness of these procedures. Additionally, we make
recommendations for practitioners and future researchers based on our

Premack principle, response deprivation hypothesis, disequilibrium theory

1University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA

Corresponding Author:
Jessica L. Herrod at the Center for Autism and Behavioral Education Research, University of
Georgia, 850 College Station Road, Building II, Athens, GA 30605, USA.
Email: [email protected]

1085249 BMOXXX10.1177/01454455221085249Behavior ModificationHerrod et al.

220 Behavior Modification 47(1)

Premack’s probability-differential provided


Journal of Behavioral Education (2021) 30:112–129

1 3


Effect of Task Sequence and Preference on On‑Task

Tiffani Warren1 · Rachel R. Cagliani1  · Erinn Whiteside1 · Kevin M. Ayres1

Published online: 13 November 2019
© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

This study compared effects of student choice of task sequence to two variations
in teacher-manipulated task sequences on on-task behavior of elementary-aged stu-
dents with disabilities. Researchers modified Call et  al.’s (J Appl Behav Anal 42:
723–728, 2009) demand assessment to determine high-, moderate-, and low-prob-
ability tasks. Next, researchers applied the results from the demand assessment
to inform teacher-manipulated variations in task sequences: a high- to low-proba-
bility task sequence and low- to high-probability task sequence. These sequences
were then embedded in a visual activity schedule (VAS). Results of task sequence
manipulation embedded in a VAS indicated slightly higher median percentages of
on-task behavior for the high- to low-probability task sequence. Future directions for
research based on these preliminary data are discussed.

Keywords On-task behavior · Off-task behavior · Visual activity schedules · Task
sequence · Student choice


Classroom success requires active engagement of students; many educators iden-
tify on-task behavior as one of the most highly desirable student behaviors (Rich-
ards et  al. 2010). Some children with autism and other disabilities may engage in
challenging behavior that reduce engagement and interfere with learning (Mira-
montez and Schwartz 2016). Disruptive learning environments reduce the amount
of instructional time, because teachers have to reallocate teaching time to manag-
ing off-task behavior (Santoyo et al. 2017). Therefore, students who engage in high
rates of off-task behavior have decreased exposure to learning through meaningful
instruction (King et  al. 2014). Kranak et  al. (2017) reported that 40% of teachers

* Rachel R. Cagliani
[email protected]

1 Center for Autism and Behavioral Education Research, University of Georgia, 110 Carlton
Street, Athens, GA 30602, USA


1 3

Journal of Behavioral Education (2021) 30:112

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